NATIONAL REGISTRY FOR ANIMAL ABUSERS

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Teacher Sensitivity to Parents

A teacher who works in an urban school that qualifies for federal funding due to the number of low-income families, the students come from a wide variety of family units: single parents, dual parents in the home, and parents who work outside the home. Many parents are English language learners and racial minorities. As the new school year begins, the teacher gives a back-to-school night speech to parents to provide an orientation to the classroom. I will be analyzing the teacher’s speech in terms of sensitivity or insensitivity to the parents. The following is an excerpt from the speech:

“Thank you for coming tonight. I also want to thank the translators who are here to help us. I believe in keeping the lines of communication open between us. To make sure you understand how my classroom will be run, I have written a disclosure document and made a copy for all of you. A disclosure document is just a written explanation about how I will grade your children, what my class rules are and other general information to help you understand my classroom.

Some of the information I’ve included comes directly from our state education office and will tell you what our state expects students to learn. There is also a copy of the national standards for Social Studies, which will help you and your child prepare for the county reports they will be assigned later in the year.

Another way for us to communicate is through our school’s website. A website is a place you can visit using your home computer to get more information about our school and my class. My disclosure document will provide step-by-step instructions to help you visit this website. The school’s website will also allow us to communicate by email. Email is one of the best ways for us to communicate!

I realize that many of you work during school hours, so once a week I will stay at school until 8 p.m. If you have any concerns or questions, you can come to school those nights and see me. My disclosure document includes a calendar showing which days I’ll be staying late.”

The teacher’s speech demonstrates sensitivity toward the parents in several ways. The speech begins by expressing a desire to keep the lines of communication open and wanting to inform parents about the class. The teacher has written a disclosure document that includes information on how the class will be conducted, grading policies and the teacher’s classroom rules. In addition to information being added from the state education office and the national standards for Social Studies, step-by-step instructions for accessing the school’s website are included. This is an excellent start toward keeping the lines of communication open between the teacher and the parents. Unfortunately, there are more insensitivities than sensitivities in the speech.

Parents will respond to the sensitivities in numerous ways. Parents will become actively involved in their child’s education. “Just about all families care about their children, want them to succeed and are eager to obtain better information from schools and communities so as to remain good partners in their children’s education.” (Epstein, 2001, p.407) Parents rate teachers and the school much higher when they are involved in their children’s education. According to Epstein, “Teachers who include the family in the children’s education are recognized by parents for their efforts.” (2001, p.35) and “They are rated higher by parents than are other teachers on interpersonal and teaching skills,…” (2001, p.35) Parents enjoy seeing their children grow and learn. They are eager to become a part of their child’s activities. By involving the parents the child’s comprehension also increases. Children respond from positive involvement and feedback from both teachers and their parents. Positive involvement from the parents is essential to the child’s education.

Insensitivities in the teacher’s speech, unfortunately, are greater than the sensitivities. These insensitivities include, language differences, availability of the teacher, communication and technical barriers. The teacher’s written disclosure statement included information from the “state education office and will tell you what our state expects students to learn.” Also, “a copy of the national standards for Social Studies,” is in the written disclosure. If the information is essential for the parents to know, it should be summarized in a reading level appropriate for the parents. The teacher is addressing a low-income, minority audience as well as some non-English speaking parent(s). “Parents cannot use information that they cannot understand.” (Mendoza, 2003, p1) In addition to non-English speaking families, any disabilities need to be taken into account. “Typical written materials are of little use to visually impaired people,” (Mendoza, 2003, p2). The teacher also limits her communication with the parents to a single night during the week, “so, once a week I will stay at school until 8 p.m”. Some of the parent(s) might work afternoons, may not have available transportation, or it just isn’t possible for them to attend a meeting with the teacher on that night during that time. The website and email being the preferred method of communication is insensitivity toward the parents. With this being a low-income area, many homes are not going to have access to a computer and are probably not computer literate, especially as the website will be in English only. The teacher also states that, “email is one of the best ways for us to communicate!” Email is not the best form of communication. Email is impersonal and leaves a lot of open room for misinterpretation. It does not include facial expressions, body language like hand gestures, vocal inflections, and the ability to show examples to the parent(s) of their child’s work.

Insensitivity in the speech would result in the parent(s) feeling uninvolved and uninformed about their child’s education. This is an important aspect to how well the student does. It has been shown that the more involvement a child’s parent or family has in their schoolwork the better the student does. According to Epstein, “Frequent use by teachers of parent involvement leads parents to report that they receive more ideas about how to help their children at home…” (1986, p 35) These insensitivities would result in the parents not actively becoming involved in their child’s education.

Ways to increase the sensitivity in the speech would be changing the written disclosure statement, availability and forms of communication and taking into account possible disabilities. The written disclosure statement should be written for the reading level of the parents and made available in the parent’s language. The information from the state’s education office and the national standards for Social Studies should be summarized to fit the reading level and remove any jargon the parents won’t understand. The website is a great tool for the parents but it shouldn’t be the only means of information. There should be information constantly being sent home with the child and frequent communication with the family. The teacher needs to be available, whether during the day or by appointment, especially if a situation needs immediate attention. Disabilities, like low vision, blindness and hearing problems need to be accommodated, “families with deaf parents, that technological advances have improved communication between deaf and hearing people (Mendoza, pp. 125-126). These are just some of the ways the teacher can make the speech more sensitive toward the parent(s).

The parent’s role in the child’s education includes behavior, ensuring the child has adequate sleep and nutrition, and that they have transportation to and from school. A parent is responsible for making sure the child has adequate supplies in the classroom and at home. Also, a parent’s role includes the child has a conducive place to study which is well lit with a positive environment. In addition to making sure the child is at school on time and prepared, the parent needs to be involved in monitoring and helping with lessons. As a teacher, ways to facilitate parental input in the classroom is an open door policy. The parent should feel that the classroom is safe, comfortable, and friendly. The parent needs to know the environment where their child spends their time during the day and will become more involved if they feel welcome and the child’s classroom is extension of their home where they learn. Making time to communicate with the parents when necessary by not restricting the time and day they can discuss their child’s education. According to Mendoza, “The ideal is two-way open and frequent communication between parents and the people outside the family.” (2003, p.2) In addition to the website access, offer alternatives by discussing with the parents what the preferable form of communication with them is. Also, noting that this is flexible to accommodate the parents. 

Reference List:

Mendoza, J. (2003). Communicating With Parents. Clearinghouse on early education and parenting. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign . Retrieved June 11, 2011, fromhttp://ceep.crc.uiuc.edu/eecearchive/digests/2003/mendoz03.html .

Epstein, Joyce. L. (2001). School, family, and community partnerships. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. 

An Example of Teacher Intervention for At-Risk Behavor

A student who is a sixteen year old tenth grader sleeps in class, defaces desks and textbooks in class, and blatantly refuses to answer direct questions. The student is reading at a sixth grade reading level and has few if any friends. There are a lot of concerns with this student, who we will call Rita. Rita has some major concerns for her at-risk behaviors. To define at-risk NAREN (National At-Risk Education Network) has proposed the following definition: “Students are placed at-risk when they experience a significant mismatch between their circumstances and needs, and the capacity or willingness of the school to accept, accommodate, and respond to them in a manner that supports and enables their maximum social, emotional and intellectual growth and development.”(NAREN, 2011). Rita’s at-risk behaviors will be addressed as well as providing intervention plans.

Rita’s reading level is of major concern because it affects her self-esteem and fear of failure, which will in essence produce a lack of interest and motivation. “Problems in reading can affect performance across several academic content areas, occupational endeavors, and other functional skills that are used in everyday life activities.” (Joseph, 2006) Rita will not be able to participate in class activities and assignments if unable to read at an adequate level to keep up with the class material.

The first intervention after contacting the school counselor or psychologist to see if an IEP (Independent Education Plan) is or needs to be put into place for Rita, is to provide more one-on-one instruction and help for Rita, e.g. reading her assignments and tests to her. During class assignments, it would benefit Rita for the teacher to assist her personally even for short periods of time to monitor and assist her in her assignments. This would give her more motivation to learn if she feels she is being helped rather than ignored, unimportant, and forgotten. Secondly, when the class works together in teams or groups it benefits in their learning. Placing Rita with a buddy partner and/or group of peers will be a positive influence and will be beneficial. It will help Rita with her reading and comprehension, as well as helping her feel more accepted by their peers. Feelings of “I am stupid”, “I will never learn to read”, and “I hate school”, will also be minimized. Getting to know Rita a little better, her interests and possible goals in life, and what does she want to obtain will help target her personal interests in the subject matter. This is important with all of the students so that the material can be presented in a way that is of interest to them, which creates motivation to learn.

Sleeping in class is of concern because she isn’t participating and if she isn’t participating she isn’t learning. By putting her head on her desk and sleeping during class it is disruptive to the teaching and to the other students. Other students notice it and the teacher is losing control by allowing it. The first action would be to move Rita’s desk to the front of the class so that she is “up-front” and it’s easier to make sure she isn’t falling asleep.

When she is starting to sleep in class, I would approach her and sincerely ask if she is feeling okay. Another way of handling the sleeping in class is, ask her a question that I know she can answer or mention her name in the lecture. For example, “Rita likes to sew and wants to know how much material she will need to make her dress for the prom, how would she calculate the amount of material she would need?” Increasing the motivation for Rita would also involve finding out some of the hobbies, likes, dislikes, and things that interest her. This way those can be incorporated into the class lecture to gain and hold her attention. Also, she could be assigned as the teacher’s assistant for the class. She can take attendance, pass out papers, and collect assignments among other little miscellaneous chores.

Defacing desks and textbooks in class is another concern because it is disruptive and destructive behavior. Defacing the textbooks by drawing and writing in them, or destroying pages in textbooks as well as carving into the desks is destructive behavior and disrespecting school property. Creating teambuilding activities benefits the whole class and prevents boredom. In Rita’s case, it will help with possible fear of failure. Constructing a private working contract with Rita outlining behaviors that acceptable and unacceptable and praising her when she abides by the contract. When noticing Rita defacing either the textbooks or the desks, moving to where Rita is sitting so that she knows she is being observed without interrupting the class will let her know that what she is doing is inappropriate behavior. The teacher may also place her hand on the corner of Rita’s desk to get her attention.

Blatantly refusing to answer questions directed at her is yet another disruptive behavior and displays a lack of interest and motivation. A result of Rita not being able to read at the tenth grade level she isn’t learning which results in boredom and being totally lost in class. From her work there should be an indication of what she is not understanding, which from her behavior I would assume it is most of the material. Helping her with her reading is a start. Giving her alternative reading material that covers the material for her at level she can read and understand will help her stay on track. By giving her more appropriate classwork suitable to her level of reading and comprehension it would help her understand the material. Creating personal activities/assignments for her rather than the general assignments, which are better suited for her. If she is having problems understanding the material Rita would benefit from similar activities and/or assignments from a different grade level in which she could understand the key points of the lessons. Asking Rita questions in class that she knows the answers would improve her self-esteem and give her more confidence in answering questions in class. By helping her on a one-to-one basis what Rita is, learning can be used to target questions that she is knowledgeable about. This would also motivate her to continue to learn. Rita’s blatant refusal to answer questions is due to her not understanding the material and she most likely feels put on the spot but if she is asked questions she knows the answers to then she is more likely to respond.

Not having friends is of extreme concern because peer acceptance is important in school, especially as a teenager. Not having peer acceptance is a major factor for dropping out of school. She may not be making friends because she feels she doesn’t fit in and can’t relate to her peers because of not being able to read at their level. She is an outsider by not being able to stay abreast of the current events of her peers. Incorporating some of the current interests of the students in class to the subject being taught would bring her more into their circle of interest. Having the class in teams of several students, in which she is paired with her buddy in the class will allow conversations about other interests that are happening with them. This would allow her to form a friendship and hopefully more will come from them. Giving Rita and another student the responsibility to decorate the classroom with posters pertaining to the class subject would give her the opportunity to become involved in the class as well as making a friend. Giving her and another student the job of keeping a bulletin board with current events happening in the school would give her the same opportunity to become involved in school activities as well as getting to know another student. Assigning Rita with a third student the responsibility of keeping the classroom organized. Rita and her classmate would be responsible for making sure the incoming assignments are picked up and outgoing assignments are handed back to students. Also, if the class had a pet like a gerbil that Rita and a couple of other students are responsible for caring for would give Rita responsibility and a chance to interact with other students.

Students with at-risk behaviors like Rita’s need to be guided in a different direction than the one they are on if they are to become successful and achieve their goals in life. Intervention is essential in helping them learn adequate skills as students and in their future as a part of society.

References

Joseph, Laurice M. (2006). In Understanding Assessing and Intervening on Reading Problems. (pp. 803). National Association of School Psychologists.

NAREN. Retrieved November 09, 2011, from http://www.atriskeducation.net/

Social-Emotional Learning in Education

Today’s classroom involves more than just teaching a particular subject if we expect our students to fully develop into adults who obtain academic success and achievements. Social-emotional skills are necessary skills that need to be incorporated into the classroom and at home. Social-emotional skills, is the “set of abilities that allows students to work with others, learn effectively, and serve essential roles in their families, communities and places of work.” (Elias, 2003). Skills that contribute to positive social-emotional development are goal setting and planning, creatively solving problems and conflict resolution, showing empathy and respect to others, and knowing how to behave and act ethically. When education includes the development of these skills, students are “more likely to remember and use what they are taught.” (Elias, 2003).

Goal Setting and planning is the ability to set short-term and long-term goals then plan a course of action to obtain those goals. These are necessary skills from the beginning of a child’s educational career as well as throughout their life. Goals are written in a specific and measurable form that can be visualized, realistically achievable and manageable. Goals are anything from completing an assigned task to learning to play an instrument. Planning is then applied to the goals so that they can be achieved. Teaching the student to set goals and plan is a life skill, which will help them obtain what they are working for in life.

Creatively solving problems and conflict resolution also involves the process of setting goals and making plans to achieve them. Invariably situations occur which create problems with the plans of achieving set goals. This is where being able to creatively solve obstacles to continue on the path to obtaining the desired goal. Being able to creatively solve problems is a life skill necessary in every aspect of life from a classroom project to long-term relationships. Conflict resolution is the skill to be able to negotiate successfully with others to come to an agreeable outcome for all. Like problems, conflicts arise in our lives at every turn, whether it’s a close friendship, personal or professional relationship.

Showing empathy and respect to others is as basic as “do unto others as you would have them do unto you.” It’s being able to understand someone else that may be different but still loves and hurts like you. We need to teach the student the ability to understand how others feel. Respect follows from understanding how another person has the same inner needs and wants as you do. It’s teaching the student that others all have a certain skill, trait, or worth. They may be different but they are equal of respect.

Knowing how to behave and act ethically is very important. Whether it is simply understanding that society has rules in place for the benefit of all or simply showing respect for others. Breaking society’s rules are only going to be detremental to the person who does not want to stay within societies rules. The rules do not change for one person who feels they don’t apply to them. This is part of being a responsible person in society. Teaching students what is ‘right’ and ‘wrong’ according to societies standards will guide them to proper behavior and act ethically.

The family that practices goal setting and planning to achieve what they want is setting a positive example and creating a habit for the child to also set goals and make plans. The family can help instill these habits by guiding the student with helping set goals and planning for assignments and projects. In addition to classwork, the family can guide the student by guiding the student with setting and obtaining personal goals.

The family that respects each other and shows empathy is teaching the student to experience empathy and show respect for others. The family that displays acceptance toward individuals and groups, which are different from them, is teaching the student to appreciate the differences in people and other cultures. That being different adds a wonderful aspect to humanity rather than being something ‘ugly’ because it’s different.

One of the ways the family environment can inhibit the student from learning empathy and respect for others is if there isn’t any respect within the family structure itself. Children learn what they live. Maybe siblings are allowed to call each other names or pick on a neighbor that isn’t liked by everyone for whatever reason. This is displaying a lack of respect, empathy for others and the student will also display the same lack of respect, and empathy believing it is acceptable behavior.

Goal setting and planning can be implemented in the classroom by using daily planners for assignments and projects. Helping the student to learn how to plan so that the assignments are done on time. Another way of teaching students the habit of setting goals and planning would be to have the students at the beginning of lessons set their goal of what they are to learn and list how they plan to learn the material, reevaluating at the end of each lesson.

Knowing how to behave and act ethically in the classroom begins with the teacher setting explicit rules in class, outlining what is expected as acceptable behavior. Rather than telling a student their behavior is wrong, it is more productive to tell the student what they should be doing. Students “find it easier to end disruptive behavior patterns by focusing on what to do rather than what not to do.” (Kagan, 2004). The teacher can also recognize positive behavior in numerous ways whether it might be extra time on the playground at the end of the day or a movie in the class at the end of a semester.

Creatively solving problems and conflicts can be taught by helping students brainstorming ideas. Assigning projects to teams where students work together to collaboratively solve problems allows them to work with others, seeing how others may see a problem differently and coming to a mutual agreement.

Strict structure without group interaction is inhibitive to the students being able to interact with others, mutually agreeing on items, as well as helping each other set goals and plans for the outcome of a joint project. When the teacher lectures to the class, requiring absolute silence, the students are denied the ability to jointly collaborate, set goals and plan on projects together, and interact creatively with a positive social interaction.

Teaching is more than just lecturing about a subject. Teaching involves guiding and helping students become a whole person who can be successful in their educational career as well as their future as a part of society.

References

Elias, M.J. (2003) Academic and social-emotional learning. Brussesls, Belgium: International Academy of Education.

Kagan, Kagan, Kyle, Patricia, Scott, Sally. (2004). Win-Win Discipline. (pp. 16.17). San Clemente, CA: Kagan Publishing.

Choosing A Pet Bird For Children

Birds make wonderful pets for children. When choosing a pet bird there is a variety to pick from. Several are excellent choices for children. Among the best choices are parakeets, cockatiels, and love birds. They are not only hardy and robust they are inexpensive and easy to care for. They tend to live long lives with the proper diet and environment.

All three are loveable and affectionate. Birds are social animals by nature, so they crave attention and play time. If the bird you choose has been hand-fed, your bird will already be tame. If it isn’t already tame, these three tame easily with time and attention. They are good singly or in pairs. The long time myth concerning lovebirds is that they must be in pairs, which this is not true. I had a single male lovebird, which lived to be sixteen years old, and the vet even told me he didn’t want a mate.

The life span of each is different. The parakeet lives on the average of six years. The maximum life span recorded though is over eighteen years. The Cockatiel has an average life span of fifteen to twenty years, even though they have been found to live thirty or more years in captivity. The lovebird’s average life span is twelve in captivity but they have been known to live as long as sixteen or more.

Diet is a major factor in the length of a pet bird’s life span. A diet of seed is nutritionally zero. The only seed your bird should get is as an occasional treat. I once had a pocket parrot that became addicted to sunflower seeds, literally! The vet wasn’t even able to get him to eat anything else. A pelleted diet is the best with vegetables, leafy greens, and fruits made available.

When choosing a pet bird, the first thing is to be sure you purchase from a reputable source like a pet store or a private breeder. I do not recommend buying a bird, or any pet for that matter, from a department store.

Pet birds become extremely attached to their cages. It is where they feel safe and secure. Therefore, the cage is important. It needs to be as large as possible. At a minimum, the bird needs to be able to spread its wings and flap inside its cage. It needs several dishes, one for water, one for pellets, and another for treats.

Birds make wonderful companions. For children, they are great playmates, which bond to their owners. Birds crave affection and play time.

The Dog’s Amazing Sense of Smell

I watch my collie when he goes outside and wonder what he smells as he sniffs the ground. Does he smell the dog down the street, the squirrel that plants his acorns in the yard, the groundhog that walked through the yard overnight, probably all of these and millions of more.

A canine’s sense of smell is thousands to millions times more sensitive than a human. Dogs are capable of smelling what we can’t imagine smelling. They are capable of sniffing out drugs, electricity, underground gas lines, the scent of fear, even fingerprints. Recent research shows that a dog is capable of even detecting human illnesses.

How is it they can smell the faintest scent of another animal to even smelling odors as much as 40 feet underground? A dog’s sense of smell is due to the intricate design of their snouts and the fact their brains are forty times more devoted to smell than ours is.

When my collie is nosing through the yard, sniffing, his wet leathery snout is picking up the most minuscule molecules like Velcro. The design of a dog’s nostrils allows expansion and mobility. As he inhales, the nostrils dilate and pick up the odors molecules. The molecules are dissolved and inhaled into the nasal cavity, which consists of a boney scroll made of cartilage called the turbinate bones and paranasal sinuses. As the inhaled air is warmed and humidified in the paranasal sinuses, the mucus lining serves as a filter, trapping bacteria and other matter. The cartilage of the turbinate bones are lined with ciliated cells, which process the scent.

These inhaled molecules are then dissolved and analyzed by the receptor cells in his nasal cavity. Once analyzed, the information is transmitted by the ethmoid bone to the two olfactory lobes in his brain.

In addition to the turbinate’s he has what is called the Jacobson’s Organ. The Jacobson’s Organ is amazing because it can detect large molecules with odors, which do not smell. It is located in the upper part of the mouth, inside the nasal cavity. Its main function is detecting pheromones, the odor which relate to mating. The Jacobson’s organ doesn’t communicate with the olfactory lobes. Rather, it sends communication to the part of the brain related to mating and emotion.

I am in awe of my dog’s ability to smell odors that I cannot smell. He can sniff the air and pick up oils, which communicate smells to him. He can smell fingerprints as old as ten days.

Cheryl’s Hot and Spicy Roast Chicken

If you are looking for something different this Thanksgiving besides the traditional large turkey you may find one of my Thanksgiving Chicken Recipes is what you are looking for. There is the roast Chicken with Plum glaze or Roast Chicken with White Wine and Tarragon. Maybe the Hot and Spicy Roast Chicken is what you are looking for. My Hot and Spicy Chicken is good served on noodles or rice. Drizzle some of the hot and spicy seasoning from the pan over your noodles. Beware, it is hot and spicy.

If you are allergic to sulfites, make sure when cooking with any wine it is sulfite free or use cooking wines which do not contain sulfites.

Hot and Spicy Chicken

Equipment

13″ x 9″ pan with rack or small roaster 
Baster 
Measuring cups 
Large spoon

Ingredients

4.5 lb roasting chicken 
Salt and pepper 
1 ½ Tablespoons Paprika 
1 Tablespoon garlic powder 
¼ cup white vinegar 
2 Tablespoons Brown Sugar 
1 teaspoon red pepper flakes 
1 teaspoon basil 
¼ cup water 
2 Tablespoon Thai Style Chili Sauce

Preheat oven to 350 degrees. If using the pan with rack, line the inside of the pan with foil (makes cleaning easier) and set the rack inside the pan. Remove giblets from chicken and cook for dressing if desired. Rinse outside and inside cavity of chicken. Salt and pepper inside cavity. Mix remaining ingredients together. Place Chicken on rack, and pour sauce over chicken. Loosely cover chicken with foil or roaster lid and bake for 1 1/2 hours basting occasionally. Depending on your oven, you may have to bake longer.

Cheryl’s Apple Cake

This is an extremely moist cake that is loved by everyone. It’s easy to make, fortunately, because it doesn’t last long. This is one of my favorites besides baked apples, apple crisp, and my grandmother’s Stack Cake. It is high in calories but as a special treat it’s worth it.

If you’re interested in the many different varieties of apples All About Apples(http://www.allaboutapples.com) is a wonderful website.

Apple Cake

6 apples, peeled, cored, and sliced thinly 
1/3 cup granulated sugar 
1 Tablespoon Cinnamon 
3 cups flour 
2-1/3 cup sugar 
1 tsp ginger 
4 eggs, slightly beaten 
1 cup vegetable oil 
2 tsp vanilla 
1/3 cup orange juice 
1-1/2 tsp. baking powder 
1-1/2 tsp baking soda

Preheat oven 350 degrees. 
Grease 8 x 8″ glass pan.

Mix 1/3 cup sugar and cinnamon together. Pour sugar cinnamon mixture over apples. Mix together flour, 2-1/3 cups sugar, ginger, eggs, vegetable oil, vanilla, and orange juice. Beat on medium speed for 2-3 minutes. Stir in baking powder and soda.

Pour 1/3 of the batter into pan. Layer half of the apples on top of the batter. Repeat again with 1/3 of the batter and the remainder of the apples. Pour remaining batter on top. Bake for 45 minutes or until toothpick comes out clean.

Nutritional Information:

1 serving: 1/12 th of cake 
Calories: 614.5 
Protein: 13.6 g 
Total Carbohydrates: 81.4 g 
Total Fat: 27.5 g 
Cholesterol: 344.3 mg 
Sodium: 321.5 mg 
Fiber: 3.0 g

Nutritional information was calculated using USDA’s SR21 nutritional database.

Cheryl’s Easy and Quick Apple Crisp

5 cups apples, peeled, sliced, and cored
2 Tablespoons water
1/3 cup sugar
1 Tablespoon flour
½ cup granulated sugar
1 tsp cinnamon
¼ cup margarine
¼ cup quick cooking oatmeal

6 servings

Preheat oven to 350. Grease 8 x 8 pan. Peel, core, and slice apples. Put apples in bottom of pan. Sprinkle water on top of apples. Mix the flour, sugar, and cinnamon together. Cut in butter until resembles coarse cornmeal. Mix oatmeal into the flour and cinnamon mixture. Sprinkle on top of apples and bake 25-30 minutes or until apples are done.

How To Calculate Your Biorhythm

Have you ever heard about Biorhythm cycles and wondered what they are? Do you want to know how to calculate your own biorhythm cycles and understand what the number means? Biorhythms are not some kind of complicated mathematical formula that only a mathematician can calculate. Calculating your own Biorhythm Cycle is easy.

What is a Biorhythm Cycle?

Biorhythm consists of three cycles, Physical, Emotional, and Intellectual. They each consist of a number of days in a cycle. The Physical cycle consists of 23 days, Emotional cycle consists of 28 days, and the Intellectual cycle consists of 33 days. Each cycle has a high and a low point. When a cycle crosses the midpoint, you’re considered to be at a critical point in the cycle. The Physical cycle influences coordination, strength, and well-being. Your Emotional Cycle influences creativity, mood, and perception. Your Intellectual Cycle influences your analytical and logical analysis, memory, and alertness.

How to calculate your Biorhythm.

Your Biorhythm is calculated based on the number of days you’ve been alive. To calculate your own Biorhythm Cycle, using your birth date calculate the number of days you’ve been alive:

1. Multiply your age by 365. 
2. Add one day for every leap year in your past. 
3. Add one day for your last birthday 
4. Add the number of days since your last birthday.

Example: (if today is 9-22-2009)

1. Birth date: 06-01-1999, which means you are 10 years old. 9 x 365 = 3,650. 
2. Add Leap Years: 3,650 + 1 = 3,651. 
3. Add one for your last birthday: 3,652. 
4. Add number of days since your last birthday: 3,652 + 29 + 31 + 31 + 22 =3,765 days you have been alive.

Taking the number of days you’ve been alive divide the number of days by the number of days in the cycle. Subtract the whole number to the left of the decimal and then multiply the decimal by the number of days in the cycle. This gives you the day you are into that particular cycle.

Physical Cycle: 3,765 / 23 = 163.695652 – 163 = .695652 x 23 = 15.9. 
Emotional Cycle: 3,765 / 28 = 134.464285 – 134 = .464285 x 28 = 12.9. 
Intellectual Cycle: 3,765 / 33 = 114.090909 – 114 = .090909 x 33 = 2.9.

Therefore, if you were born June 1st, 1999, your Physical Cycle is in day 16, Emotional Cycle is in day 13, and your Intellectual Cycle is in day 3.

What does it mean?

Okay, you have the number of days you are into each of the three cycles, so what? What does it mean? The cycles are based on a sinusoidal waveform, which means each cycle has a positive (0…100%) and a negative (0…-100%) phase. When your cycle is in the positive phase, it’s a “good” day and when your cycle is in the negative phase, it’s a “bad” day. The crossover points or midpoint, which is 0%, are considered “critical” days.

All of the Cycles start at zero and end at zero. The midpoints or “critical” days are at the first, last, and midpoint of the cycles. The high points are ¼ into the cycle and the low point is ¾ into the cycle.

The Physical Cycle:

Day 1: begins at 0% 
Day 5.75: would be the high point or 100% positive. 
Day 11.5: would be the critical point or 0% again. 
Day 23 or 1: the cycle starts over at 0%

The Emotional Cycle:

Day 1: begins at 0% 
Day 7: would be the high point or 100% positive. 
Day 14: would be the critical point or 0% again. 
Day 28 or 1: the cycle starts over at 0%

The Intellectual Cycle:

Day 1: begins at 0% 
Day 8.25: would be the high point or 100% positive. 
Day 16.5: would be the critical point or 0% again. 
Day 33 or 1: the cycle starts over at 0%

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